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By Jose Maria Lagaron, Maria Jose Ocio, Amparo Lopez-Rubio

ISBN-10: 0470598220

ISBN-13: 9780470598221

ISBN-10: 1118150880

ISBN-13: 9781118150887

This e-book specializes in the coupling of plastics and biocides, with specific focus on ordinary biocides and the nanofabrication of biocides, and in their ultimate homes and job. Chapters deal with the most important applied sciences hired to impart antimicrobial habit to polymers, together with chemical amendment of the polymers themselves, in addition to discussing purposes in nutrients packaging, scientific units, nanomaterials, and coatings. The assurance balances outlining the applied sciences with explaining the mechanisms of antimicrobial habit. Concluding chapters disguise regulatory concerns and human security and environmental dangers of antimicrobial polymers.

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The changing epidemiology of resistance. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 64(Suppl 1), i3–10. 6. Klevens, R. , Morrison, M. , Harrison, L. , Townes, J. , Craig, A. , Zell, E. , Fosheim, G. , McDougal, L. , Carey, R. , Fridkin, S. K. (2007). Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298, 1763–1771. 7. Walsh, C. (2000). Molecular mechanisms that confer antibacterial drug resistance. Nature, 406, 775–781.

24 25 25 26 26 29 31 31 33 34 34 37 38 40 41 41 Antimicrobial Polymers, First Edition. Edited by Jose´ M. Lagaro´n, Marı´ a J. Ocio, and Amparo Lo´pez-Rubio. r 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1 PREFACE Microbes constitute an integral part of our environment and dwell within our bodies in a delicate symbiotic balance. Yet, the resilience and flexibility of these single-celled beings have enabled them to survive for millions of years in complex and hostile conditions, challenging their evolution to sophisticated virulence levels.

Subinhibitory concentrations are likely to be encountered intermittently between antibiotic administration in various body compartments and when excreted outside the host in environmental residues [17]. The high resistance to pathogens in hospitals is most likely not initiated by mobile resistant genes but rather by selection of the fittest mutant pathogens that survive the extensive antibiotic therapy [8]. 1): 1. Alterations in target proteins and drug binding sites: For example, alteration in penicillin binding proteins confers resistance to β-lactam antibiotic and alterations in 50S ribosomal proteins results in resistance to macrolides.

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Antimicrobial Polymers by Jose Maria Lagaron, Maria Jose Ocio, Amparo Lopez-Rubio


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