By Robert F. Jones
Once we consider the fur exchange within the early days of America's enlargement westward, visions of mountain males with untamed beards, shouldering muskets, and braving an unexplored desolate tract packed with eminent threat, spring to our minds. This mountain manwas certainly a vital part of the fur exchange in America's northwest territory, yet both vital, and sorely unremembered, have been the service provider and the participants of the buying and selling businesses whose accountability it was once to take the uncooked product and spot that it came across its approach into the hats and coats that graced the population of the key towns of the realm. Annals of Astoria is the tale of those males. this is often the magazine of Duncan McDougall, supervising accomplice of the Pacific Fur corporation at Astoria. It files the day-by-day operations on the put up and within the Oregon nation from the send Tonquin's arrival at the Columbia until eventually the sale of the publish and the company's resources to the North West Fur corporation in November 1813. Like a lot of the industrial historical past of the us in the course of the early republic, this rfile is heavily linked to John Jacob Astor. An emigrant from Germany in 1763, the formidable formative years got down to forge new territory within the fur exchange and, together with his 1808 constitution for the yank Fur corporation, created a monopoly within the fur alternate, essentially doing away with festival with Canada and Britain. In 1810, Astor prepared the Pacific Fur corporation with Duncan McDougall as one among its companions. Later that 12 months, McDougall set out with a group at the send Tonquin towards Vancouver Island as a part of Astor's three-pronged attempt to infiltrate the northwest coast. McDougall was once the manager of the submit through the years 1811-1813 and was once completely liable for what was once recorded in it. therefore, his log is the main exact account of the day-by-day job of the buying and selling post.
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Extra resources for Annals of Astoria: The Headquarters Log of the Pacific Fur Company on the Columbia Rive, 1811-13.
Further, its position at Sitka itself was challenged. Its brutal policies had antagonized the Tlingit Indians of the mainland and Kodiak Island, an antagonism made effective by muskets, shot, and powder traded by American and British captains. 4 John Jacob Astor moved into this mix of international tensions, national concerns, and private ventures. One of Astor's employees once remarked on his "comprehensive mind," that he could see connections in apparently disparate circumstances and relationships.
17 Ronda, Astoria, pp. 277-83; see pp. 282-83 for the partners' explanation of their decision. Documents relevant to this are in T. C. , "Sale of Astoria, 1813," Oregon Historical Quarterly, 33, No. 1 (March 1932), 43-50, especially 44-46. , NW Documents. Michel Bourdon (No. 15) is listed as a freeman and interpreter in the roster of Pacific and North West employees for the winter of 1813-14 given as the Appendix to this work. 18 Ronda, Astoria, pp. 287-90; see Elliott, "Sale of Astoria, 1813," cited in n.
63-64. , NW Documents. Page xxi of the declaration of war on Great Britain by the United States the previous June. This immediately cast doubt on Astor's sending of the yearly supply of provisions and trade goods necessary for continuing operations. McDougall and McKenzie, the only partners then at Astoria, decided on a policy of retrenchment with an eye to the likely evacuation of the post in the spring. 16 Finally, the North Westers brought about the end of Astoria as an American enterprise. In April 1813, the post was surprised by the visit of three North Westers, John George McTavish, Joseph Larocque, and Michel Bourdon, with fifteen men supporting them.
Annals of Astoria: The Headquarters Log of the Pacific Fur Company on the Columbia Rive, 1811-13. by Robert F. Jones