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By M. Woolfson

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Oblique p2 This is illustrated in fig. 26 in the form given in the International Tables. The twofold axis is at the origin of the cell and it will reproduce one of the structural units, represented by an open circle, in the way shown. The right-hand diagram shows the symmetry elements; the twofold axis manifests itself in two dimensions as a centre of symmetry. It will be seen that three other centres of symmetry are generated - at the points (x, y) = (\, 0), (0,^) and ({,\). The four centres of symmetry are all different in that the structural arrangement is different as seen from each of them.

8) Two unit vectors § 0 and S are now defined which lie, respectively, along the directions of the incident and scattered beams. 3. The vectors So/X and S/X in the incident and scattered directions have equal magnitudes 1/1. It can be seen from simple geometry that s is perpendicular to the bisector of the angle between So and S and that its magnitude is given by s = (2sin0)/A. 1) then the resultant disturbance at P, a distance D from Ol9 will be given by y(209D,t) =/2,-{exp[27iiv(r - D/c) - iaj + exp[27iiv(t — D/c) — ias + 27iir-s]} = /2e^exp[2itiv(t - D/c) - iaj[l + exp(2iurs)].

Wherever a pair of structural units are related by either a mirror line or a glide line the enantiomorphic relationship is shown by the presence of a comma in one of them. Fig. 28. The two-dimensional space group p4g as it appears in International Tables for X-ray Crystallography. Square 4mm p4g m No. 12 o O o O o o o o 0 o o o o o o O O O Origin at 4 Hexagonal p6 As the name of this two-dimensional space group suggests it is based on a hexagonal cell, which is a rhombus with an angle 2it/3 between the axes.

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An Introduction to X-Ray Crystallography by M. Woolfson


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