By Martin G. St. John Sutton, Alan R. Maniet, Jerry Blaivas, David A. McGowan, David Gordon, Stuart Stanton
Clinically correct emphasis the following presents the reader with an authoritative evaluation of what ideas can be found and what pictures could be bought. The multiplane probe, paediatric and 3D probes, and colour stream Doppler are incorporated.
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Extra info for An Atlas of Multiplane Transesophageal Echocardiography
Safety of transesophageal echocardiography: a multicenter survey of 10,419 examinations. Circulation 1991;83:817–21. 54. Khandheria BK, Seward JB, Bailey K, et al. Safety of transesophageal echocardiography: experience with 2070 consecutive procedures (abstract). J Am Coll Cardiol 1991;17(suppl A):20A. 55. Dawson J, Cockel R. Oesophageal perforation at fiberoptic gastroscopy. BMJ 1981;283:583. 56. Silvas SE, Nevel O, Rozas G, et al. Endoscopic complications: results of the 1974 American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Survey.
14a,b) and the entire heart and aorta interrogated with one pass, by rotating the probe by 360°. Alternatively, the probe can be withdrawn to each level and the heart visualized, and then the probe can be passed again into the stomach and rotated by 180° to visualize the whole aorta by withdrawing a second time. Although this second method uses two passes of the probe there is actually less manipulation of the probe, which is especially important in the conscious patient. 12 Diagram of the transducer tip of a multiplane TEE probe illustrating the rotating transducer Atlas of multiplane transesophageal echocardiography: volume I 26 array.
With transducers that image at lower frequencies, occasionally the whole ascending aorta and aortic arch, with the proximal takeoff of the great vessels and the superior vena cava, may be visualized at depths of field of 20–24 cm. With slight clockwise rotation, the right ventricular outflow tract can be visualized. 16). 17). At least three planes are interrogated: distal, apex, mid ventricular cavity, and base at or below the level of the atrioventricular valves. 19). 18). This is probably the optimal view to visualize the true left ventricular apex without foreshortening.
An Atlas of Multiplane Transesophageal Echocardiography by Martin G. St. John Sutton, Alan R. Maniet, Jerry Blaivas, David A. McGowan, David Gordon, Stuart Stanton